- Machine instructions and addressing modes.
- ALU, data‐path and control unit.
- Instruction pipelining. pipeline hazards
- Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage;
- I/O interface. (Interrupt and DMA mode)
“Pipeline hazards newly added — but it was already there implied by pipelining.”
- Operand Forwarding in Pipeline
- Pipeline Hazards
- Cache Types- A simple illustration
- Cache Hierarchies
- Cache policies- Useful for problem solving
- Cache & Virtual Memory
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