GATE 2021 syllabus is changed after 5 years. Like in 2016 there are more removals than additions. More importantly there are better clarifications regarding topics this time — some topics implicitly present have been added explicitly. This can also mean that it is very highly unlikely that non mentioned topics — dynamic pipelining for example — be asked in GATE.

You can see the old syllabus here

## Contents

- Official Syllabus Links
- Discrete Mathematics
- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Probability
- Digital Logic
- Computer Organization and Architecture
- Programming and Data Structures
- Algorithms
- Theory of Computation
- Compiler Design
- Operating System
- Databases
- Computer Networks
- General Aptitude
- Removals

## Official Syllabus Links

## Discrete Mathematics

- Propositional and first order logic.
- Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices.
**Monoids**, Groups. - Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring.
- Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

Monoids is an addition but it was already implied in Groups.

## Linear Algebra

No changes since 2016

## Calculus

No changes since 2016

## Probability

- Random variables.
- Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions.
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation.
- Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

No changes since 2016

## Digital Logic

- Boolean algebra.
- Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization.
- Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

No change since 2016

## Computer Organization and Architecture

- Machine instructions and addressing modes.
- ALU, data‐path and control unit.
- Instruction pipelining.
**pipeline hazards** - Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage;
- I/O interface. (Interrupt and DMA mode)

Pipeline hazards newly added — but it was already there implied by pipelining.

## Programming and Data Structures

- Programming in C. Recursion.
- Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

No change since 2016

## Algorithms

- Searching, sorting, hashing.
- Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity.
- Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer.
- Graph
**traversals**, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

.Just a rename of Graph Traversals to Graph Search

## Theory of Computation

- Regular expressions and finite automata.
- Context-free grammars and push-down automata.
- Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma.
- Turing machines and undecidability.

No changes

## Compiler Design

- Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation.
- Runtime environments.
- Intermediate code generation.
**Local optimisation, Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination.**

The optimization part is newly added. But these were already included before GATE 2016 in the form of “Basics of Code Optimization”

## Operating System

**System calls,**Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization.- Deadlock.
- CPU and I/O scheduling.
- Memory management and virtual memory.
- File systems. Disks is also under this

System Calls is newly added. CPU scheduling renamed to CPU and I/O scheduling

## Databases

- ER‐model. Relational model:relational algebra, tuple calculus,SQL.
- Integrity constraints,
- normal forms.
- File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees).
- Transactions and concurrency control.

No change

## Computer Networks

- Concept of layering.OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks;
- Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit-switching;
- Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging;
- Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing;
- Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation,
- Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT);
- Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets;
- Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP,
**Email**.

- Removed Topics :
**IPv6**, Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls. - Renaming of POP to Email
- Explicit mentioning of ARP, DHCP, ICMP though questions from these used to be asked before too.
- Some renaming of other topics

## General Aptitude

General Aptitude Syllabus is a lot changed. But technically not many additions are there- just explicit mentioning of topics which were earlier present in a much generalized form like “Numerical Computation”. Analytical Aptitude is newly added though questions from this topic always used to be there.

Spacial Aptitudeis a new addition. Overall more oriented towards GRE syllabus.

**Verbal Aptitude**

- Basic English grammar: tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech
- Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context
**Reading and comprehension****Narrative sequencing**

**Quantitative Aptitude**

- Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables
- Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series
- Mensuration and geometry
- Elementary statistics and probability

**Analytical Aptitude**

- Logic: deduction and induction
- Analogy
- Numerical relations and reasoning

**Spatial Aptitude**

- Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping
- Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions